Table of Contents

Front Matter

Government Cryocooler Development Programs

An Overview of NASA Space Cryocooler Programs -- 2006
R. Ross, Jr.1, R. Boyle2
1NASA/JPL, Pasadena, CA, 2NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
AFRL Space Cryogenic Technology Research Initiatives
F. Roush, T. Roberts
AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

Space Cryocoolers for 4-18 K Applications

NGST Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) Cooler System
D. Durand1, C. Jaco1, M. Michaelian2, T. Nguyen1, M. Petach1, E. Tward1
1NGST, Redondo Beach, CA, 2Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 USA
10K Pulse Tube Cooler
T. Nguyen1, R. Colbert1, D. Durand1, C. Jaco1, M. Michaelian2, E. Tward1
1NGST, Redondo Beach, CA, 2Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 USA
Development of Remote Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature, Space-Borne Systems
T. Nast, J. Olson, E. Roth, B. Evtimov, D. Frank, P. Champagne
Lockheed Martin ATC, Palo Alto, CA
Ball Aerospace 4-6 K Space Cryocooler
D. Glaister1, W. Gully1, P. Hendershott1, E. Marquardt1, V. Kotsubo1, R. Ross, Jr.2
1Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO, 2NASA/JPL, Pasadena, CA

20 to 80 K Space Stirling and Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

Ball Aerospace Next Generation Two-Stage 35 K Coolers: The SB235 and SB235E
W. Gully, D. Glaister, P. Hendershott, V. Kotsubo, J. Lock, E. Marquardt
Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO
Multistage Stirling Cycle Refrigeration Performance Mapping of the Ball SB235
T. Roberts1, A. Razani2
1AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM, 2The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA; Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM 87123 USA
Thermal/Mechanical System Level Test Results of the GIFTS 2-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler
S. Jensen1, G. Hansen1, T. Nast2, E. Roth2, B. Clappier2
1Utah State Univ., North Logan, UT, 2Lockheed Martin ATC, Palo Alto, CA
Design of a Large Heat Lift 40 K to 80 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Space Applications
T. Trollier1, J. Tanchon1, J. Buquet1, A. Ravex1, I. Charles2, A. Coynel2, L. Duband2, E. Ercolani3, L. Guillemet3, J. Mulli4, J. Dam4, T. Benschop4, M. Linder5
1Air Liquide, Sassenage, France, 2CEA/DSM/INAC/SBT, 38 054 Grenoble Cedex 09, France, 3CEA, Grenoble, France, 4THALES Cryogenics, The Netherlands, 5ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands
Development of a 0.5 W/40 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler for an Infrared Detector
G. Wang, J. Cai, W. Jing, L. Yang, J. Liang
Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China
Pulse Tube Microcooler for Space Applications
M. Petach1, M. Waterman1, E. Tward1, P. Bailey2
1NGST, Redondo Beach, CA, 2Oxford University, UK

20 to 80 K Commercial Stirling and PT Cryocoolers

CVD Diamond Based Miniature Stirling Cooler
D. Patterson1, K. Jamison1, M. Durrett1, A. Kashani2, D. Gedeon3
1Nanohmics, Inc., Austin, TX, 2Atlas Sci., San Jose, CA, 3Gedeon Assoc., Athens, OH
Microminiature Linear Split Stirling Cryogenic Cooler for Portable Infrared Applications
A. Veprik, H. Vilenchik, S. Riabzev, N. Pundak
Ricor Ltd, En Harod Ihud, Israel
Miniature Pulse Tube Research
Y. Luwei, L. Jingtao, Z. Yuan, C. Houlei
Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China
Sunpower's CPT60 Pulse Tube Cryocooler
K. Wilson1, C. Fralick1, D. Gedeon2, M. Yoshida3, S. Kawahara3
1Sunpower, Inc., Athens, OH, 2Gedeon Assoc., Athens, OH, 3Smach Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan
Prototyping a Large Capacity High Frequency Pulse Tube Cryocooler
J. Tanchon1, T. Trollier1, A. Ravex1, E. Ercolani2
1Air Liquide, Sassenage, France, 2CEA, Grenoble, France
Design, Construction and Operation of a Traveling-Wave Pulse Tube
S. Rotundo, G. Hughel, A. Rebarchak, Y. Lin, B. Farouk
Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA

4 to 10 K Commercial Pulse Tube and GM Cryocoolers

Free Third-Stage Cooling for a Two-Stage 4 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler
A. Ravex1, T. Trollier1, J. Tanchon1, T. Prouvé2
1Air Liquide, Sassenage, France, 2CNRS, Grenoble, France
A Novel Three-Stage 4 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler
C. Wang
Cryomech, Inc., Syracuse, NY
Performance Characteristic of a Two-Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator in Coaxial Configuration
T. Koettig, R. Nawrodt, M. Thürk, P. Seidel
Friedrich-Schiller Univ., Jena, Germany
Investigation of Two-Stage High Frequency Pulse Tube Cryocoolers
L. Yang1, M. Zhao1, J. Liang1, Y. Zhou1, M. Dietrich2, G. Thummes2
1Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China, 2Institute of Applied Physics, University of Giessen, Germany
Research on Improvement in the Efficiency of the GM Refrigerator
H. Nakagome1, T. Okamura2, T. Usami3
1Department of Urban Environment System, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, 2Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Yokohama, Japan, 3Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Yokosuka, Japan

Thermoacoustically-Driven Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

Non-Zero Time-Averaged Thermoacoustic Effects, Linear or Nonlinear?
E. Luo
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Numerical Investigation of DC Flow Loss in Thermoacoustic Systems
W. Dai1, E. Luo2
1Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China, 2Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
A High Frequency Thermoacoustically Driven Thermoacoustic-Stirling Cryocooler
E. Luo1, G. Yu2, S. Zhu2, W. Dai2
1Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China, 2Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China
A Thermoacoustically Driven Pulse Tube Cooler
J. Hu1, E. Luo1, W. Dai2
1Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China, 2Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China

Pulse Tube System Performance Considerations

Proposed Rapid Cooldown Technique for Pulse Tube Cryocoolers
R. Radebaugh1, A. O'Gallagher2, M. Lewis2, P. Bradley3
1National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 USA, 2NIST, Boulder, CO, 3National Institute of Standards and Technology
Gravity Effect in High Frequency Coaxial Pulse Tube Cryocoolers
X. Hou, L. Yang, J. Cai, J. Liang
Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China
Thermodynamic Comparison of Two Types of Stirling Refrigerators
Z. Wu1, E. Luo2, W. Dai1, S. Li3
1Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China, 2Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China, 3Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics (SITP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Shanghai, 200083, China
A Hybrid Counterflow Pulse-Tube Refrigerator
W. Liang, M. Will, A. de Waele
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands

Pulse Tube Analysis and Experimental Investigations

Characterization of Inertance Tubes Using Resonance Effects
M. Lewis1, P. Bradley2, R. Radebaugh3, Z. Gan4
1NIST, Boulder, CO, 2National Institute of Standards and Technology, 3National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 USA, 4Cryogenics Lab, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, 310027 China
A New Type of Streaming in Pulse Tubes
W. Liang, A. de Waele
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Visualization of Secondary Flow in an Inclined Double-Inlet Pulse Tube
M. Shiraishi1, M. Murakami2, A. Nakano3, T. Iida3
1Nat. Insti. of AIST, Ibaraki, Japan, 2Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, 3Orbital-Engineering, Yokohama, Japan
The Second-Law Based Thermodynamic Optimization Criteria for Pulse Tube Refrigerators
A. Razani1, T. Roberts2, B. Flake3
1The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA; Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM 87123 USA, 2AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM, 3European Office of Aerospace Research and Development, London, UK
A Model for Parametric Analysis of Pulse Tube Losses in Pulse Tube Refrigerators
C. Dodson1, T. Roberts2, B. Flake3
1Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 USA, 2AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM, 3European Office of Aerospace Research and Development, London, UK
One-Dimensional Analytical and Numerical Models of the Pulse-Tube Cooler
M. Etaati, R. Mattheij, A. Tijsseling, A. de Waele
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Validation of an Integrated Modeling Tool for the Study of Pulse Tube Coolers
A.S. Gibson1, D. Nikanpour1, H. Elmrini2
1Canadian Space Agency, St-Hubert, Canada, 2MAYA Heat Transfer Tech. Ltd., Montreal, Canada
A Numerical CFD Model for Reciprocating Laminar Flow in a Channel
M. Raizner, I. Garaway, G. Grossman
Technion Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa, Israel

Linear Compressor Development and Modeling

Development of a Compressor for a Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler of 2.5 W at 65 K
N. Matsumoto, Y. Yasukawa, K. Ohshima, T. Takeuchi, K. Yoshizawa, T. Matsushita, Y. Mizoguchi, A. Ikura
Fuji Electric Systems Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan
Gas Spring Losses in Linear Clearance-Seal Compressors
P. Bailey1, M. Dadd1, C. Stone1, J.S. Reed2, T.M. Davis3
1Oxford University, UK, 2EADS Astrium Ltd, UK, 3AFRL Kirtland Air Force Base, NM
Evaluation of Total Pressure Oscillator Losses
P. Bradley1, M. Lewis2, R. Radebaugh3, Z. Gan4, J. Kephart5
1National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2NIST, Boulder, CO, 3National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 USA, 4Cryogenics Lab, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, 310027 China, 5Naval Surface Warfare Center, Philadelphia, PA
Oil-Lubricated Compressors for Regenerative Cryocoolers Using an Elastic Membrane
E. Luo1, Z. Wu2, J. Hu1, W. Dai2
1Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China, 2Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China

Regenerator Materials Development and Testing

Cooling Performance of Multilayer Ceramic Regenerator Materials
T. Numazawa1, K. Kamiya2, Y. Hirastuka3, T. Satoh3, H. Nozawa4, T. Yanagitani4
1National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0003, Japan, 2Nat. Inst. for Mat. Sci., Ibaraki, Japan, 3Sumitomo Heavy Ind., Japan, 4Konoshima Chem. Co., Kagawa, Japan
Ribbon Regenerator Performance in a Single-Stage GM Cryocooler
G. Green, W. Superczynski
Chesapeake Cryogenics Inc., Annapolis, MD
Results of Tests of Etched Foil Regenerator Material
M. Mitchell1, D. Gedeon2, G. Wood3, M. Ibrahim4
1Mitchell/Sterling, Berkeley, CA, 2Gedeon Assoc., Athens, OH, 3Sunpower Inc., Athens, OH, 4Cleveland State Univ., Cleveland, OH
Photoetched Regenerator for Use in a High Frequency Pulse Tube
W. Superczynski, G. Green
Chesapeake Cryogenics Inc., Annapolis, MD

Regenerator Modeling and Performance Investigations

Hydrodynamic Parameters of Pulse Tube or Stirling Cryocooler Regenerators for Periodic Flow
J. Cha1, S. Ghiaasiaan2, P. Desai1, J. Harvey3, C. Kirkconnell4
1Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA, 2Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA USA, 3Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, El Segundo, CA, 4Iris Technology Corporation, Irvine, CA USA
Numerical Simulation of a Regenerator in a Two-Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator
B.Y. Du, L. Yang, J. Cai, J. Liang
Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China
Phase Shift Characteristics of Oscillating Flows in Pulse Tube Regenerators
H. Chen, L. Yang, J. Cai, J. Liang
Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China
Dimensionless Analysis for Regenerator Design
J. Shi1, J. Pfotenhauer1, G. Nellis2
1Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 2University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA, 53706

J-T and Throttle-Cycle Cryocooler Developments

All-Micromachined Joule-Thomson Cold Stage
P. Lerou1, G. Venhorst2, T. Veenstra2, H. Jansen2, J. Burger2, H. Holland3, H. ter Brake2, H. Rogalla2
1Kryoz Technologies, 7521 PV Enschede, The Netherlands, 2University of Twente, The Netherlands, 3University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
Progress Towards a Low Power Mixed-Gas Joule-Thomson Cryocooler for Electronic Current Leads
J. Pfotenhauer1, J. Pettitt1, D. Hoch1, G. Nellis2
1Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 2University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA, 53706
Modeling, Development and Testing of a Small-Scale Collins Type Cryocooler
C. Hannon1, B. Krass1, J. Gerstmann1, G. Chaudhry2, J.G. Brisson2, J. Smith, Jr.2
1Adv. Mech. Tech., Inc., Watertown, MA, 2MIT, Cambridge, MA

Sorption Cryocooler Developments

Vibration-Free 4.5 K Sorption Cooler
J. Burger1, H. Holland2, R. Meijer1, G. Venhorst1, T. Veenstra1, H. ter Brake1, H. Rogalla1, M. Coesel3, A. Sirbi4, D. Lozano-Castello5
1University of Twente, The Netherlands, 2University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, 3Dutch Space, The Netherlands, 4ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands, 5Univ. of Alicante, Spain
Flight Acceptance Testing of the Two JPL Planck Sorption Coolers
D. Pearson1, B. Zhang1, M. Prina1, C. Paine1, P. Bhandari1, R. Bowman1, A. Nash1, G. Morgante2
1NASA/JPL, Pasadena, CA, 2INAF/ISAF-Sezione, Bologna, Italy

Recuperator Design and Performance Investigations

Progress Towards a Micromachined Heat Exchanger for a Cryosurgical Probe
D. Hoch1, G. Nellis2, S. Schuetter1, S. Klein2, W. Zhu3, Y. Gianchandani3
1Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 2University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA, 53706, 3Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
Development and Testing of a Multi-Plate Recuperative Heat Exchanger for Use in a Hybrid Cryocooler
D. Hoch1, G. Nellis2, N. Meagher1, J. Maddocks3, S. Stephens4
1Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 2University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA, 53706, 3Atlas Scientific, San Jose, CA, 4AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM
A Recuperative Heat Exchanger for Space-Borne Turbo-Brayton Cryocoolers
R.W. Hill, M.G. Izenson, W.B. Chen, M.V. Zagarola
Creare Inc., Hanover NH

Sub-Kelvin, Magnetic, and Optical Refrigerators

Successful Qualification of the First PFM Space Dilution Refrigerator
S. Triqueneaux1, J. Delmas1, P. Camus2, G. Guyot3
1Air Liquide, Grenoble, France, 2CRTBT-CNRS, Grenoble, France, 3IAS, Orsay, France
All-Solid-State Optical Coolers: History, Status, and Potential
C. Mungan1, M. Buchwald2, G. Mills3
1USNA, Annapolis, MD, 2Buchwald Consulting, Bethesda, MD, 3Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO
Study of Gd-Y Alloys for Use in Cycle of Active Magnetic Regeneration
S. Kito1, H. Nakagome2, T. Kobayashi3, A. Saito3, H. Tsuji3
1Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, 2Department of Urban Environment System, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, 3Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Japan
A Study on the Formation of Magnetic Refrigerant La(Fe,Si)13 Compounds by Spark Plasma Sintering
H. Tsuji, A. Saito, T. Kobayashi, S. Sakurada
Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Japan

Cryocooler Integration Technologies

Cryocooler Performance Estimator
Peter Kittel
Palo Alto, CA
Temperature Control Strategies in a Rectified Continuous Flow Loop for the Thermal Management of Large Structures
H. Skye1, D. Hoch1, S. Klein2, G. Nellis2, J. Maddocks3, T. Roberts4
1Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 2University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA, 53706, 3Atlas Scientific, San Jose, CA, 4AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM
Development of a Cryocooler System to Provide Zero Boil-Off of a Propellant Tank
D. Frank1, E. Roth1, J. Olson1, B. Evtimov1, T. Nast1, B. Sompayrac2, L. Clark2
1Lockheed Martin ATC, Palo Alto, CA, 2Lockheed Martin ATC, Denver, CO
Development of a Cryogenic Thermal Switch
M. Wang, L. Yang, T. Yan, J. Cai, J. Liang
Chin. Acad. of Sci., Beijing, China

Space Cryocooler Applications

Aerospace Cryocooler Selection for Optimum Payload Performance
C. Kirkconnell
Iris Technology Corporation, Irvine, CA USA
HIRDLS Cooler Subsystem On-Orbit Performance -- A Second Year in Space
J. Lock, R. Stack, D. Glaister, W. Gully
Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO

Commercial Cryocooler Applications

Carbon Dioxide Flash-Freezing Process Applied to Ice Cream Production
T. Baker, J.G. Brisson, J. Smith, Jr.
MIT, Cambridge, MA
Cryogenic Refrigeration Cycle for Re-Liquefaction of LNG Boil-Off Gas
J. Moon1, Y. Lee1, Y. Jin2, E. Hong3, H. Chang4
1Korea Inst. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul, Korea, 2Korea Univ. of Tech. and Educ., Chungnam, Korea, 3Shinyoung Heavy Ind. Co., LTD, Junnam, Korea, 4Hong Ik Univ., Seoul, Korea
Hydrogen Liquefaction by Magnetic Refrigeration
K. Kamiya1, T. Numazawa2, H. Takahashi3, H. Nozawa4, T. Yanagitani4
1Nat. Inst. for Mat. Sci., Ibaraki, Japan, 2National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0003, Japan, 3Chiba Univ., Chiba, Japan, 4Konoshima Chem. Co., Kagawa, Japan
Research on a Magnetic Refrigeration Cycle for Hydrogen Liquefaction
T. Utaki1, T. Nakagawa1, T. Yamamoto1, K. Kamiya2, T. Numazawa3
1Osaka University, Japan, 2Nat. Inst. for Mat. Sci., Ibaraki, Japan, 3National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0003, Japan
Helium-Liquefaction by Cryocooler for High-Field Magnets Cooling
Y. Choi1, D. Kim2, B. Lee2, H. Yang2, T. Painter3, H. Weijers3, G. Miller3, J. Miller3
1KBSI-NHMFL Collaboration Center, Tallahassee, FL, 2Korea Basic Sci. Inst., Daejeon, Korea, 3Nat'l High Mag. Field Lab, Tallahassee, FL

Indexes

Proceedings Index
Author Index
Subject Index